As with training for other complex military systems, training Forward Observers to properly deliver Indirect Fire calls involves multiple participants and can be expensive to coordinate. One solution to this is to automate aspects of the Call for Fire process to enable a human Forward Observer trainee to train anytime and anywhere, without the need for extra participants. This paper describes an automated Fire Direction Center, responsible for accepting spoken Calls for Fire from a Forward Observer trainee. In this paper, we describe the automation aspects of the Indirect Fire training: the motivation behind the work, the general design of the system, the challenges we faced, and our approach in addressing these challenges.


Stensrud, B., Taylor, G., and Crossman, J. (2006) “IF-Soar: A Virtual, Speech-Enabled Agent for Indirect Fire Training.”In Proceedings of 25th Army Science Conference. Orlando, FL.

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