The DoD widely uses airborne computer generated forces (CGFs) in simulation environments, however most CGFs are not autonomous or interactive enough to be directed naturally by a human controller. Full simulation capability requires detailed, doctrinally correct CGFs that can be controlled directly by airspace managers, such as air traffic controllers, air traffic services, or even ground commanders operating in a combat zone. Compounding the problem of controlling CGFs is that the military already employs a wide range of CGF behavior systems with different levels of autonomy, fidelity, and interactivity. This paper describes an ongoing effort to develop a “Controller’s Assistant” to enhance the apparent capabilities of existing CGFs by introducing a speech-enabled, intelligent user interface (IUI) between a human controller and a set of CGFs. This Controller’s Assistant allows for a human controller to use doctrinal airspace control commands to interact with a diverse set of CGFs in a distributed HLA simulation federation. The IUI translates spoken user commands into HLA commands that direct the CGFs, and also monitors CGF progress to provide spoken feedback to the controller when doctrinally appropriate.


Stensrud, B., Taylor, G., Schricker, B., Montefusco, J., & Maddox, J. (2008). “An Intelligent User Interface for Enhancing Computer Generated Forces.” Paper presented at the Simulation Interoperability Workshop, Orlando, FL.

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